Tag Archive for life sciences
Berkeley Lab Researchers Discover How and Where Breast Tumor Cells Become Dormant and What Causes Them to Become Metastatic
Berkeley Lab researchers have identified the microenvironment surrounding microvasculature as a niche where dormant breast cancer cells may reside, and the sprouting of microvasculature blood vessels as the event that transforms dormant cancer cells into metastatic tumors.
New evidence supports earlier findings that cancer therapy drugs based on a family of enzymes called metalloproteinases (MMPs) failed in clinical trials because they were aimed at the wrong target.
Berkeley Lab scientists have developed a computer model of a protein that helps cells interact with their surroundings. Like its biological counterpart, the virtual integrin snippet is about twenty nanometers long. It also responds to changes in energy and other stimuli just as integrins do in real life. The result is a new way to explore how the protein connects a cell’s inner and outer environments.
The protein structure of the archaellum, the motor that propels many species of Archaea, the third domain of life, has been characterized for the first time by a team from Berkeley Lab and the Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial Microbiology. A ring made of six identical proteins derives energy from hydrolyzing adenosine triphosate (ATP) and uses this energy to drive shape changes, both assembling and rotating the archaellum’s whiplike propeller.
How’s this for big data: A whole-slide image of a tumor section can be ten billion pixels. There can be thousands of such images in the tumor cohorts maintained by The Cancer Genome Atlas project, which are collected from a large pool of patients. The images are a potential treasure trove for the emerging field of [...]
To learn how something works in biology, it pays to start really small. Take this research for example: A team that includes Berkeley Lab scientists has identified and mapped the locations of many of the proteins that compose a hair bundle, which is an organelle that sprouts from hair cells in the inner ear. Their work [...]
Research conducted by Berkeley Lab scientists could lead to a blood test that detects if a person has been exposed to radiation, measures their dose, and separates people suffering from inflammation injuries—all in a matter of hours. They identified eight DNA-repair genes in human blood whose expression responses change more than twofold soon after blood is exposed to radiation.
Medical imaging goes underground: SPECT maps 3-D changes in soil samples, may shed light on bioremediation
The same medical imaging technology that doctors use to noninvasively image the heart and brain is now giving scientists a close-up view of the subsurface world. Berkeley Lab scientists are developing a way to use Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography, or SPECT, to map 3-D changes in sediment samples without disturbing them. Their work could help [...]